Media & Paedophilia

As all of us know, Paedophilia is one of the lowest of human depravity. Moreover, I hereby argue that media love toward children, and the media induce children whom the media affect by sensational graphic contents toward children.

According to a study done by Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism, the University of Southern California (2011), the study indicates that Hollywood obsessed by sexualizing women and teenage girls as well.

A cut-scene from Juno (Don’t forget using either a condom or a contraceptive!)
A cut-scene from Juno

Juno, the film taken in 2007, is the comedy-drama film directed by Jason Reitman, written by Diablo Cody and acted by Ellen Page. The controversy is that this movie romanticizes having sex in teenage. What I would like to talk about is that teenage pregnancy is a serious matter, however this romance movie does not seem to think seriously. Moreover, it is not realistic at all, and it would seem that teenagers could get the wrong impression on teen sex and pregnancy.

Not only this, some of the movies directed the sex lives of kids: It Felt Like Love, S#x Acts, Fat Girl, Havoc, and Kids. (See more:

Furthermore, I found the interesting article that represents about the sexual behaviour what teens learn from media.

This indicates several interesting facts: (Common Sense Media, n.d.)

  • “72% of teens think watching TV with a lot of sexual content influences their peers’ behaviour somewhat or a lot.”
  • “Programs with sexual content average 4.4 scenes per hour.”
  • “On average, music videos contain 93 sexual situations per hour, including 11 hard-core scenes depicting behaviour like intercourse and oral sex.”
  • “Between 1998 and 2005, the number of sexual scenes on TV nearly doubled.”
  • “1 in 5 children will be approached by a sexual predator online.”
  • “15-to 24-year-olds account for nearly half of all STD diagnoses each year.”
  • “Watching a lot of sexual content on TV and listening to sexually explicit music lyrics increase the chances that a teen will have sex at an earlier age.”
  • “60% of female video game characters are presented in a sexualized fashion.”
  • “The biggest users of online pornography are 12-to 17-year-old boys.”

These facts point to how the media affect the sexuality of teenagers. In conclusion, the way the media portray children is no different from Paedophilia. To contradict those facts, I would like to argue that teenagers are neither naïve nor inadequate.


Common Sense Media, n.d. Sexual behavior: what teens learn from media. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 22 April 2015].

USC Annenberg study, 2011. USC Annenberg News. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 22 April 2015].

Public Sphere & Sensitive Issues

To promote the understanding of readers about the topic, I hereby write the definition of the concept of the public sphere which was defined by Habermas; he defined it as “society engaged in a critical public debate”. (Habermas, 1989)

Nowadays, a large number of media performs the function of the mediated public sphere. In order to argue my opinion in this essay, I choose 9GAG ( among numerous media platforms. 9GAG is the media platform containing a number of contributed images and videos likely to user-contributed contents on YouTube.

'Top 10 9gagger countries!' sourced from
‘Top 10 9gagger countries!’ sourced from

9GAG, which was established in April 2008, is an image and video sharing online community. The community has grown in popularity: numerous users in 9GAG participate by uploading an image, a video, and generating a comment, and so on. Basically, there is the major reason why people contribute to the online community by sharing media contents and commenting on threads: generating a content enables a user to be responded by commenting from other users on an article likely to a debate.

9GAG is the community where numerous debates are performed the function of the mediated public sphere. As many users joined in 9GAG, a large number of issues have been discussed: for instances, a trivial issue such as ‘this is mine’ (a little cat moves a pancake:, and a sensitive political issue such as ‘how do people see me when I say I am the German?’ (you can see Hakenkreuz the Nazi ensign on this page:, and a racial issue such as ‘racist jokes’ (cut-scenes from Rush Hour the movie: and so on.

As you see, those trivial and sensitive issues are able to be shared and discussed freely by generating contents and comments on numerous articles. How the political and racial issues can be discussed? As I know, mentioning about topics related to the topics is unwelcome in our society. In order to explain that, I would like to say that the environment of 9GAG performs the function of the mediated public sphere because the environment (as a communication channel) is mediated, and the users send the mediated messages through the mediated channel.

A coffeehouse discussion; copyright 1900 by B. L. Singley, USA copyright expired.
A coffeehouse discussion; copyright 1900 by B. L. Singley, USA copyright expired.

Once upon a time, the public sphere was confined itself to a coffeehouse. Nowadays, the concept of the sphere expands itself to an online network. Moreover, we can freely discuss the sensitive issues which can be argued through the mediated public sphere that works flawlessly with a mediated medium and its communication channel.


Habermas, J 1989, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, 2nd edn, Polity, Cambridge.

Huge Capital + Media = ?


As of today in a society, mainstream media have influenced the society at large. And, several huge capitals have eyes on controlling (and acquiring) media. For instance, Gina Rinehart, the wealthiest Australian businesswoman owning Hancock Prospecting (an Australian mining company), became the Fairfax’s (owning The Sydney Morning Herald, SMH) largest shareholder.

“Fossil fuels do not cause global warming” Really?

As a result, if a huge capital owned media (or a medium), this collaboration would be remarkably empowered beyond the limit. Therefore, it must be strongly restricted that the capital (or a conglomerate) owns a media company. If not then, the collaboration would be a great chance to manipulate consumers and their right, and to hide the company’s wrongdoing. Therefore, it would build up unfair profits massively.

To suppose what the collaboration results in a negative situation, let’s imagine if Apple (owned by Tim Cook) acquires media companies with billion dollars, and see what would happen. The 2 written suppositions as written right below have been given to promote readers understand that who owns the media (or a medium) is important.

Firstly; Netflix, the best known VOD service provider in the world, could be taken over by Apple. Netflix would be a great compliment to iTunes! And, it would scare competitors such as Amazon and YouTube (and Google).

Secondly; Comcast, the largest American cable company and Internet service provider owning NBC and Time Warner, also could be taken over by Apple. If Apple acquires Comcast, it could really help them in manipulating issues on various matters such as product liabilities (iPhone 6 Bendgate and other issues) and labour issues (riots, suicides and other issues in Foxconn’s iPhone factories). And, it would be the America’s most influential legal monopoly owning Time Warner and NBC.

Anyway, I am using Apple iTunes (a media platform developed by Apple) to manage my Apple iPad and its numerous iOS applications, and to listen to music locating on my music library. Furthermore, I occasionally purchase music listing on iTunes music store. To be honest, I cannot deny that Apple is a genius for understanding a user experience, and applying the experience into a practical technology even if I was born in Korea where Samsung was originated from.

As what media purposes for, media will function flawlessly when it uses for interacting between media and audiences, and representing for the public interest. However, the proper function of media would collapse if it is used for one’s profit. Unfortunately, this is happening now.


McKnight, D., 2012. The Conversation. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 2 April 2015].

Two dimensions or more than that

MediaThe images, which involve two dimensions or more than that, distract people from a real viewpoint. Therefore; to figure out what are the denotation (what is there?) and the connotation (what it means?), (Chandler, n.d.) the complex image as shown right next is referred to promote understanding these 2 terms correctly.

Firstly, the denotation of the image is a computer-generated digital image, and is also firstly originated and digitally generated by scanning an illustration.

As the image shows, the left-side man is getting run away from the right-side man. And, the right-side man, holding a sharped-object, is pursuing the left-side man to stab him. In front of them, a camera man is taking a video.

Secondly, the connotation of the image implies the sensational distortion of media. The satirical illustration, based on which negative situation media are intended to misrepresent for maximizing audiences and profits, is significantly illustrated. And, this illustration might be remarkably rationalized to whom got antagonism against the media and its negative aspects.

Furthermore, I would like to ask whether it is possible to perceive and read it in more than one way. Whichever it is, my answer is ‘Yes’. Firstly, we do have to look carefully what the image directly shows, and indirectly implies. Hence the complexly-illustrated image, this image is including two dimensions.

If we carefully look at this picture instead of a scene showing at the background, then there is an opposite event as following next: as the scene shown on the camera screen-view shows, the left-side man is trying to stab the right-side man, and the right-side man is screaming for help.

Furthermore, the several dimensions are able to interpret in various ways due to the differentiations of several internal and external factors such as personal characters, social and cultural aspects. As of these descripted factors, interpreting in various ways is distinctly possible. (Chandler, n.d.)

Chandler, D., n.d. Semiotics for Beginners. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 25 March 2015].

Social aspects rather than a video game

Grand Theft Auto 5 published by Rockstar Games
Grand Theft Auto 5 published by Rockstar Games

As of today, media technologies are advancing remarkably fast, and this includes the advancement in video gaming. Video game graphics improves user experience to become more realistic. For instance, Grand Theft Auto (abbreviated as GTA), the very popular American video game published by Rockstar Games, is an example. Besides, this game is causing controversy by the assumption of video games making people to feel an impulse to commit violent crimes.

Several media experts and sociologists have claimed that the violence of video games influences people negatively, and makes people to feel an impulse to commit violent crimes as well. (Iowa State University News Service, 2013) However, I do not agree about that, and I claim that we have to think negative social influences rather than a video game.

According to an article on media effects studied by David Gauntlett, this argues that the effects model tackles social problems ‘backwards’ – blaming video games rather than negative social aspects. And, some criminologists studied the relationship between crime and violence, and they argue that various negative social factors (such as poverty and the behaviour of family and peers) are closely related to an offender and his/her aggressive behaviour. (Gauntlett, n.d.) According to the internal social factors, we have to focus what offenders and criminals are primarily originated and affected by, and not to blame for external or second-party reasons such as a video game and a violence content.

Furthermore; a children, who are exposed to the media, is being treated as an inadequate that who he/she cannot decide their will carefully is defined as a non-adult. Thus, a children is being defined as a disqualified person who might imitate and cause a crime because they play a video game. (Gauntlett, n.d.) To counter the argument, we have to look carefully for other primary affections, such as the failure of education systems rather than playing a video game; the solid justification that adults are trying to hide their fault – the collapse of the education system. In the last analysis, what I would like to say is children can critically think and eligibly judge what are either right or not-to-do.

Again, I would like to say: “A video game will not make you a murderer”.

Sourced from
Sourced from


Gauntlett, D., n.d. Ten things wrong with the Media ‘Effects’ Model. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2015].

Iowa State University News Service, 2013. Violent video games are a risk factor for criminal behavior and aggression. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 2 April 2015].