My Favourite Place Movie Theatre

In this week, I would like to share one of my life stories which is about either a successful or failed attempt at going to a movie theatre. Prior to sharing either of them, I would like to define the meaning of the Hagerstrand’s three constraints. As these three constraints Hagerstrand stated in 1970 (cited in Hodge & Janelle 2013), these consist of three logical components which are: capability, coupling, and authority constraints.

  1. Firstly, the capability constraints are imposed by physiological and biological abilities, and tools that an individual can command (Hodge & Janelle 2013). Which means that this refers to whether he/she can get to a location.
  2. Secondly, the coupling constraints can be defined as limitations that when, where, and for how long an individual need to join with other people, and tools (Hodge & Janelle 2013). In other words, this refers to whether he/she can get to a location on time.
  3. Lastly, the authority constraints can be defined as limitations on when activities can or cannot take place, and are imposed by external authorities (Hodge & Janelle 2013). In plain language, this refers to whether he/she is allowed to be at a specific location.

A typical cinema at a shopping mall; this file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Either of the successful or failure attempt, I would like to share about my successful attempt at going to a cinema. I used to go the nearest movie theatre with my girlfriend. Prior to visiting the cinema, I have a habit that I used to check a movie schedule by using a mobile application, because I do not want to miss the movie or waste my valuable time waiting for the next show time. After checking the schedule, I used to use Uber when visiting the nearest shopping mall where the cinema is located. And of course, Uber is more reliable than public transportation in terms of saving times.

As of today, people do not need to worry about lack of physical and geographical accessibility to visit a movie theatre. With the advancement of information technologies, there are many different ways to see movies such as web-streaming services including YouTube, iTunes, Netflix, Hulu, and other numerous platforms (including IPTV). However, I still prefer a cinema. A movie I saw recently was ‘Train to Busan’. This movie is still available at theatres. This movie is the first Korean zombie apocalypse movie filmed by a Korean director. This was really awesome, and I recommend this movie if you have not seen yet.


Hodge, DC & Janelle, DG 2013, Information, Place, and Cyberspace: Issues in Accessibility, Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin.


The Internet

ARPANET Logical Map – This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1977 and without a copyright notice.

Since the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (abbreviated as ARPANET; the foundation of modern Internet) had been developed by the United States Department of Defense (Kaminow & Tingye 2002, pp. 28-29), the Internet has been advanced endlessly. With the rapid advancement of the communication platform, our daily lives have been radically changed. Amongst many countries on Earth, South Korea is one of the most wired countries in the world (Internet World Stats 2016). So to speak about our Internet penetration, there are 3 major Internet service providers in South Korea: Korea Telecom (KT), SK Telecom, and LG Telecom (PCMag 2016).

Network Diagram of Internet Devices – This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

Let’s return to the household of the person who I spoke with in week 2. In the second week, I spoke with my mother about her memories of watching a television. And in this week (4th week), we are going to discuss what kind of Internet access is in my mother’s house, and how many devices are connected to the Internet. Firstly, there is a broadband and mobile network connection in the house. In terms of the number of devices connected to a broadband modem, the approximate number of the devices is four including a laptop, smartphone, Wi-Fi router, and IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) device.

As I said early, there are three major Internet providers in the Korea, including KT, SK, and LG (PCMag 2016). Amongst the broadband and mobile network service providers, my mother is using SK’s broadband service (FTTH), and KT’s mobile network service (3G and LTE network). By the way, South Korea has one of Internet service coverages with the highest densities in the world as well as the fastest Internet speed and bandwidth (PCMag 2016). Along with Singapore, Hong Kong HKSAR, and other similar countries, the Korea is offering the highest Internet service quality, and I am really satisfied with these facts.

Besides, the Internet has changed her way of life. Especially, with the dissemination of Wi-Fi router and smartphone, this set up a ubiquitous computing environment. Literally, my mother does not need to sit in front of a computer or television anymore. She just needs a smartphone to surf websites, or watch television shows, and this can be done without space constraints.

I am also using a smartphone, there is also a FTTH connection at a place where I am staying at this moment, and the total number of devices connected to the Internet is eight, including a game console, Wi-Fi router, IPTV device, tablet PC, laptops, and smartphones. I am not sure my Wi-Fi router is capable of these many wireless connections.


Internet World Stats 2016, Korea Internet usage, broadband and telecommunications reports, Internet World Stats, viewed 24 August 2016, <>.

Kaminow, I & Tingye, L 2002, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV-B: Systems and Impairments, Academic Press, Cambridge.

PCMag 2016, Fastest ISPs 2015: South Korea, PCMag, viewed 24 Auguest 2016, <>.

Audiences, Interviewees & Collaborative Media Ethnography

According to Fetterman (1998), a term ‘ethnography’ can be defined as the activity of documenting routine of people’s daily lives, and exploring cultural characteristics of group. Besides, Neuman (2007) defined ‘ethnography’ as “describing and understanding another way of life from the native point of view”. Then, what is the meaning of ‘collaborative’? According to Oxford Dictionaries written by Oxford University Press (2016), a term ‘collaborative’ means “something produced by or involving two or more parties working together”.

This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired and its author is anonymous.

Ethnography is about to identify behaviour patterns, and to make readers understand the perspective of the native to the culture studied, and context, complexity, and politics of social processes. The processes of conducting ethnography is: firstly, identifying problem or topics of interest, fieldwork (data collection and analysis), participant observation, individuals and groups, analysis, and lastly presenting a report.

There are a number of the potential advantages and disadvantages of collaborative media ethnography. Firstly, let’s talk about the potential advantages. The most interesting point might be that creating a better understanding of others’ cultures would be one of the advantages of the term ‘collaborative media ethnography’. By setting the goals and objectives of studying the collaborative media ethnography, I believe that there might be the potential advantage that he/she can have a better understanding of others’ cultures that he/she never experienced before.

The second potential advantage of the collaborative media ethnography would be the acquisition of in-depth understanding of a culture among people. By conducting the collaborative media ethnography, it is expected that extensive knowledge about others’ cultures might be gained via detailed, vailed, and correct interpretations. Besides, by doing the collaborative media ethnography, this would give an opportunity to people and their cultures to represent people’s views of cultural knowledge that might not be heard before.

On the other hand, there are also a number of potential disadvantages of the collaborative media ethnography. The first potential challenge would be that the media ethnography might require additional time, efforts, and costs when this is compared to quantitative research. Which means qualitative research requires more resources than the quantitative research. Furthermore, findings and results are not generalizable, as sample sizes are small and limited. Another potential challenges would be that one of participants might not be neutralized, and this can result in affecting other participants, and results and findings.

Without any intention, we subconsciously do this type of experiment every day. For instance, we see what people wear, eat, do, and talk on crowded street. Thus, it can be defined that we all can be researchers, regardless of goals and objectives of a study. However, this is somewhat complexed and advanced in terms of academic and professional experiment.


Fetterman, DM 1998, Ethnography: step by step / by David M. Fetterman, Thousand Oaks, California.

Neuman, WL 2007, Basics of Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Allyn & Bacon, Boston.

Oxford University Press 2016, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford Dictionaries, viewed 18 August 2016, <>.

Television & Memories

When you think of a traditional living room, the first thing that you recall would be a television. If someone asks me what are in my living room, firstly I would say there is a big square box, which is so-called the television, in my living room. So let me tell about the television. As we all know, the television has been together with a family for a long time.

So to describe a short narrative based on a conversation with someone older than me, which is about his/her memories of television watching in childhood, someone I spoke to was my mother. She was born in 1953, and was the eldest of 4 siblings. When she was very young, there was the first black-and-white television entered the market in South Korea. At that time, owning the television was the symbol of rich men. Therefore, only a small number of people in the Korea owned the television.

Here I want to share an interesting fact which was said by my mother. During the 1970-80s of South Korea, the Country had been governed by a military government. As what she said, the television was used as a tool for government propaganda during that time. Besides, I was able to find video footage on YouTube. For reference, here I put the site link of the video footage on YouTube:

Besides, my mother was working as a nurse in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia for around 10 years when she was in 30-40s. While she was working in these Muslim countries, she was watching the television at a dormitory after leaving her workplace. Since Kuwait and Saudi Arabia was one of the strictest Muslim countries, mostly what she was watching was Islam-related television programmes, such as Imam’s preaching, relay broadcast at Mecca, and reciting phrases written in Quran. In my opinion, I guess all these religion-related contents, which are not only related to Islam, but also related to Christianity, Buddhism, and other religions, would be boring for non-believers.

The first essay question given during the BCM240 lecture was an interesting subject. Because of the interesting topic, I was able to describe how the television was remembered by each different generation, like me and my mother.

Identities in Between Real-life and Facebook & Narcissism on the SNS

Social network service, abbreviated as SNS, is an online public sphere that enables people building online relations among a large number of online users on the Internet. SNS also enables people sharing their common interests and activities. As we can see, a large number of people share their daily interests and activities on the online public sphere. Among a large number of the social network platform, Facebook is famous for popular appeal and the number of active users. As of 2013, 757m users are using the social platform daily (Sedghi 2014). Therefore, nowadays Facebook can be represented as a common online social platform.

Since Facebook became popular among people, a large number of users have joined Facebook. As Facebook accounts became a part of our identities, we may have different identities in between Facebook and real-life. For instance, he/she is an extraordinary person in real-world. On the other hand, however, he/she could be a narcissistic celebrity who communicates with millions of Facebook users and who has numerous online followers on Facebook. In this academic proposal, interesting questions what I would like to suggest are: Firstly, what are my identities and roles in between real-life and Facebook? Secondly, what is the relationship between narcissism and the way how we use Facebook and other social network platforms? Lastly, how does Facebook and other SNSs accentuate narcissism?

Picture 1 – Sourced from Viil Lid’s blog

Ashmore and Jussim (1997, p. 7) state that an identity is affected by membership to a specific social group. Ashmore and Jussim (1997, p. 113) also state that the identity requires one to fulfil the role and expectation of such identity. Therefore, it can be defined as that an identity intersects at a social group. In other words, one’s identity can be actively adapted by group members and membership to particular social groups, such as actual life and Facebook. Furthermore, he/she can have not only a single identity, but also various identities.

Besides, Canary et. al’s 2003 study (cited in Shafie, Nayan and Osman 2012, p. 135) state that an online identity is unspecified, and has no relation to a real-world identity (or an offline identity). Canary et. al’s 2003 study (cited in Shafie, Nayan and Osman 2012, p. 135) also state that the online identity consists of online social identity and online personal identity, and is composed of symbolic communication and textual communication. In terms of how one can present oneself, Canary et. al’s 2003 study (cited in Shafie, Nayan and Osman 2012, p. 135) state that self-concept consists of personal and social aspects, and this lead to self-presentation.

Thus, it can be defined as that one’s online identity can be represented by self-representation and feedback such as texts and pictures, communications with other online users, and membership in a social group.

In terms of a barrier between online and offline identities, Shafie, Nayan and Osman (2012, p. 134) state that social network service causes invisible lines between youths’ online identities and offline identities. The researchers also argued that self-promotion and peer-perception influence youths’ online identities. In other words, self-promotion (such as selfies) and verbal communications between Facebook users affect their online identities.

Picture 2 – Source unknown

According to a media research, which conducted a study of various Facebook and other social network service accounts, done by Buffardi and Campbell (2008, p. 1303), the researchers found that Narcissism on SNS intends higher levels of social activity in an online public sphere and more self-promoting contents in social network service. Buffardi and Campbell (2008, p. 1313) also found that the number of Facebook friends and wall-posts on a profile page is related to narcissism which also is practiced in real-life by having a large number of superficial relationships. Furthermore, Buffardi and Campbell (2008, p. 1305) also found that narcissists tend to choose charming self-promoting portraits for their main profile pictures for retrieving themselves from their negative characteristics in real-life.

In accordance with the academic studies as suggested above, these studies show that identities which are on social networking service, included Facebook, have no relations to real-life identities. Moreover, the secondary research data, sourced from those suggested studies, also indicates that SNSs accentuate narcissism. As written previously, this proposal shows the background knowledge of a selected topic related to media, and will lead to the way how media research can be conducted. By doing quantitative research that will be conducted in the future, the writer expects that his/her identities and identical preferences, which are in between SNSs (Facebook) and their real-lives, can be identified.


Ashmore, RD & Jussim, L 1997, Self and identity: Fundamental issues, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Buffardi, LE & Campbell, WK 2008, ‘Narcissism and Social Networking Websites’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1303-1324.

Sedghi, A 2014, ‘Facebook: 10 years of social networking, in numbers’, The Guardian, 4 February, viewed March 28, <>.

Shafie, LA, Nayan, S, & Osman, N 2012, ‘Constructing Identity through Facebook Profiles: Online Identity and Visual Impression Management of University Students in Malaysia’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 65, no. International Congress on Interdisciplinary Business and Social Sciences 2012 (ICIBSoS 2012), pp. 134-140.

Further Reading

Green, RK 2013, ‘The Social Media Effect: Are You Really Who You Portray Online?’, The Huffington Post, 7 October, viewed March 30, <>.

The Best Retail Experience I Encountered: JUNO HAIR

Everyone has memorable retail experiences they have encountered in our lives whether these are the worst or best. As a matter of fact, so do I. Because of the moment when I was happy for joy over unexpected service I had received, I can say that I encountered the best retail experiences in my life.

The memorable experience was happened when I was living in South Korea. One day, I went to a hair salon ‘JUNO HAIR’ ( to get a haircut. The hair salon was my favourite salon located in a town where I was living. So that day a hair dresser chopped my hair, and prepared to wash my hair. One special thing I highly satisfied is that I was treated to scalp massage: she massaged my scalp while she was shampooing my hair, and was done without adding extra charges. Consequently, the massage conducted by the hairdresser gave me a great pleasure. Thus, this could be one of my memorable retail experiences. Actually, this is a special feature of the hair salon ‘JUNO’. Scalp massage is one of basic services that is conducted not only by a particular salon, but also every branch of ‘JUNO’. Generally, other hair salons might provide this service with an extra charge.

Besides, there was another memorable retail experience. It was happened three months ago while I was staying in Korea during the vacation. During that time, I went to another hair salon to get a haircut. After finishing the hair cut, she gave me a voucher, and treated me kindly with the greatest care.

In accordance with my experiences as written above, I was able to realize how important such retail experiences are. As a result, I learnt that retail experiences are important for the success of business, and that the retail experiences can greatly affect consumers’ preferences.

Beyond the Virtual World

So to speak about how the virtual world realizes a physical reality, or how the virtual world can be transformed to a physical reality, I would like to put some examples which have been idealized and realized in the real world:

  • A 3D printer prints the digital blueprint, which is characteristically called as CAD and is sketched by a 3D modelling software, to a physical object.
  • A 3D modelling software, which are relevant to 3D printing, realizes a physical reality.
  • A digital sandbox, which also can be referred to as a virtual sandbox, realizes a physical matter.
  • A text-based HTML code generates a graphic layout and CGI (Computer Graphic Interface).
  • A text-based programming language code generates CGI.
  • Virtual Reality, which is a recently developed technology and is abbreviated as VR, imitates the physical world.
  • Augmented Reality, which is abbreviated as AR, grafts a digital matter onto a physical reality.
A Norwegian APC driver wears Oculus Rift, sourced from
A Norwegian APC driver wears Oculus Rift, sourced from
GTA 5 is being played by wearing Oculus Rift, sourced from
GTA 5 is being played by wearing Oculus Rift, sourced from

From among those terms, I would like to choose ‘Augmented Reality’ in order to flexibly reflect a realistic aspect. In terms of real cases, the Norwegian and Swedish armed forces utilize Oculus Rift, which is a virtual reality head-mounted display (HMD) and is developed by Oculus VR. And that HMD equipment is fully utilized for protecting a tank driver and for securing the wide observation angle. Furthermore, Oculus Rift also can be applicable to maximise user experience in playing video games. Grand Theft Auto 5 is the one of video games which can be played by wearing Oculus Rift. So it can be defined that Oculus Rift maximises a virtual experience onto the physical world.

According to the advancement of information technology, the world has been totally changed. The distinction between the digital and physical world will become more blurred. Especially, the boundary between experience and matters in the virtual and real world is blurred by ‘Augmented Reality’.


Younger, P 2015, Watch GTA 5 being played with the Virtuix Onmi treadmill and Oculus Rift, IncGamers, viewed 31 May 2015, <>

Brandom, R 2014, The Norwegian Army is using the Oculus Rift to drive tanks, Vox Media, viewed 31 May 2015, <>